The speed of a computer's processor chip (technically known as its "clock speed") is measured in gigahertz (GHz), with the fastest modern processors currently running at up to 4.7GHz. However, for most computing tasks -- including web browsing, sending e-mails, word processing and spreadsheet work -- any processor running at 1GHz or more remains perfectly sufficient. (No really guys, it does!).
The size of your hard disk drive, or HDD, determines how many applications, photos, videos, MP3s, documents and other items you can store on your computer and access daily. Here, you have the option of a hard drive or a solid-state drive for storage. Solid-state drives, or SSDs, are preferable in some cases because they have faster loading times than HDDs. However, SSDs are costlier. Some computer enthusiasts prefer both installed in their PC, offering the best of both options and it's easy to switch between them. Hard drive sizes range from less than 250GB and more than 2TB, with 500GB being a middle range. Additionally, it is easy to increase hard drive space using portable HDDs.
The chipset, which includes the north bridge, mediates communication between the CPU and the other components of the system, including main memory; as well as south bridge, which is connected to the northbridge, and supports auxiliary interfaces and buses; and, finally, a Super I/O chip, connected through the southbridge, which supports the slowest and most legacy components like serial ports, hardware monitoring and fan control.
This is the final component needed for your computer, an optical drive or a CD/DVD drive. Blu-Ray drives also read CDs/DVDs as well as Blu-Ray disks, but may not WRITE CD or DVD formats. Either one will be fine however, as what you need is something to read the disk to install your operating system. An operating system delves more into software, but it is simply the software of your computer that manages other software and your hardware devices. Examples of different operating systems are Mac OSX, Windows XP, Windows 7, and Linux. When buying a pre-built PC, it will typically come with an operating system already installed and an optical drive, when building a PC however, you will need to purchase this yourself. It is entirely possible to install an operating system off of a flash drive as well, but it is typically handy to have an optical drive incase you install any other data or programs via CD. You can always add an optical drive to your desktop computer as well, should you find the need for one later on.

Many large defense contractors have multiplatform systems, such as a command module with moving maps, sensor fusion, and database retrieval that overlays data on the unfolding mission scenario. This command system may reside in an air transport rack (ATR) or vetronics chassis mounted in an armored vehicle or widebody aircraft, could be in an air-cooled rack on a ship, or may need to be shoehorned into an SFF system on a multimission ground vehicle.
The CPU (central processing unit), which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heatsink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPUs include an on-die graphics processing unit (GPU). The clock speed of CPUs governs how fast it executes instructions, and is measured in GHz; typical values lie between 1 GHz and 5 GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling.
Several key cloud computing vendors now offer computing processing capacity and data storage online. Amazon, for example, now have an IaaS offering called Elastic Compute Cloud or EC2. This allows users to purchase computer processing power online from Amazon. Such online hardware capacity is purchased in "instances", with each instance having its own defined amount of processing power, memory and storage. For example, an EC2 "small instance" currently comprises 1.7 GB of memory, 1 EC2 Compute Unit (1 virtual core with 1 EC2 Compute Unit), and 160 GB of storage. Computing instances are charged by the instance hour consumed, with data transfer charged by the GB.
In contrast, battlefield-rugged servers bring higher mean time between failures (MTBF) and can operate longer in environments that experience extreme heat, moisture, shock, and vibration, while remaining competitive with commercial server costs. A modular design for these purpose-built servers enables anything in the system to be swapped out on the battlefield, underway on board the ship, or in the air on a reconnaissance mission. This is particularly important in a submarine, for example, where carrying a few replacement modules is far more practical than hauling around a large quantity of spare servers.
Alongside cameras, low cost scanners have also allowed millions of us to easily capture documents and images directly into a computer. In turn, scanners are now converging with printers -- with multi-function devices (MFDs) now commonly including a printer, scanner, photocopier and sometimes fax machine. Used with optical character recognition (OCR) software, scanners also permit the capture not just of images, but of editable text.

Motherboard :- The motherboard is the computer's main circuit board. It's a thin plate that holds the CPU, memory, connectors for the hard drive and optical drives, expansion cards to control the video and audio, and connections to your computer's ports (such as USB ports). The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the computer…


When choosing a motherboard, it’s important to check what hardware ports the motherboard supplies. It’s vital to check how many USB ports, and what grade (USB 2.0, 3.0, 3.1) they are, as well as what display ports are used (HDMI, DVI, RGB) and how many of each there are. The ports on the motherboard will also help you define what other hardware will be compatible with your computer, such as what type of RAM and graphics card you can use.
The motherboard is the body or mainframe of the computer, through which all other components interface. It is the central circuit board making up a complex electronic system. A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. The mother board includes many components such as: central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), firmware, and internal and external buses.
This is my first amazon review even though I purchase a lot of things on amazon.PC Server & Parts exceeded my expectation.First my MSA arrived ahead of schedule which is always appreciated.The packing of the MSA was professional grade!The MSA looks brand new.They provided all bay trays and every accessory even the small things like including power cords.Bottom line They Rocked the entire process!!

Drives -- A drive is a device intended to store data when it's not in use. A hard drive or solid state drive stores a PC's operating system and software, which we'll look at more closely later. This category also includes optical drives such as those used for reading and writing CD, DVD and Blu-ray media. A drive connects to the motherboard based on the type of drive controller technology it uses, including the older IDE standard and the newer SATA standard.
The hard drive or flash drive provides persistent storage as a flat area of bytes without much structure. Typically the hard disk or flash disk is formatted with a "file system" which organizes the bytes into the familiar pattern of files and directories, where each file and directory has a somewhat useful name like "resume.txt". When you connect the drive to a computer, the computer presents the drive's file system to the user, allowing them open files, move file around, etc.

A flash drive is faster and uses less power than a hard disk. However, per byte, flash is significantly more expensive than hard drive storage. Flash has been getting cheaper, so it may take over niches at the expense of hard drives. Flash is much slower than RAM, so it is not a good replacement for RAM. Note that Adobe Flash is an unrelated concept; it is a proprietary media format.
Keyboards remain the dominant means of getting most textual and numeric data into a computer. Computer keyboards have also changed relatively little over the past couple of decades. Those developments that have taken place tend to have involved the inclusion of more and more special function keys, wireless technologies, and improvements to assist with display screen equipment health and safety regulations. Early IBM PC keyboards, for example, whilst being extremely robust, had such solid keyboard switches that many people who typed on them all day soon developed repetitive strain injury problems. In contrast, modern keyboards (designed for typists rather than engineers who do not spend all day typing) require a far lighter touch.

According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency only around 15% of the e-waste actually is recycled. When e-waste byproducts leach into ground water, are burned, or get mishandled during recycling, it causes harm. Health problems associated with such toxins include impaired mental development, cancer, and damage to the lungs, liver, and kidneys.[11] That's why even wires have to be recycled. Different companies have different techniques to recycle a wire. The most popular one is the grinder that separates the copper wires from the plastic/rubber casing. When the processes is done there are two different piles left; one containing the copper powder, and the other containing plastic/rubber pieces.[12] Computer monitors, mice, and keyboards all have a similar way of being recycled. For example, first each of the parts are taken apart then all of the inner parts get separated and placed into its own bin.[13]
When you put all the parts together, make sure you have plenty of room to keep your build organized. Be aware of static electricity as you build – it’s one of the few ways the hardware can be damaged but it’s easy to avoid. Frequently ground yourself by touching an unpainted metal surface or wear an electrostatic discharge (ESD) wrist strap to protect your system’s components from the static electricity that’s naturally present in your body. It’s also helpful to keep a can of compressed air to remove any dust or fine debris from the interface as you’re installing the processor, memory, and SSD. 

Webcams and digital cameras have over the past ten years also significantly expanded the way that a great many people work with and think about computers. Digital photography is now commonplace, with the uploading of images onto a PC for e-mailing, sharing over the web, or printout, now the norm. I remember in the late 1990s the manager of the largest chain of photo processing shops in the UK telling me that digital photography would have no real impact on their business. Oh how wrong he was!
[The above all said, those hoping to speed up thier PC by installing more RAM need to note that any PC with a 32 bit operating system can only access a maximum of 4GB of RAM. Add more, and the PC simply will not recognise it. In practice this means that the vast majority of PCs in use and being sold today cannot benefit from more than 4GB of RAM -- and this includes many PCs running Windows 7 (which is very widely sold in its 32 rather than 64 bit format to maximise compatabilty with older software and perhipherals).]
A laptop computer is only as good as its components and parts. When these elements have outlived their usefulness, it's time to replace and renew with laptop replacement parts. On most notebooks, every part is upgradeable including the keyboard, screen, and inside components. Technology changes dramatically from one year to the next, which is why being able to upgrade to keep up with these changes is essential and being able to do it yourself is priceless.
Display screens remain the dominant form of computing output peripheral, with most new modern desktop displays being flat panels of between 15" and 19" in diagonal. However, far more bulky cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors are still favoured by some in high-end graphics work where absolute colour control is required. For other types of visual output (especially in education and training) video projectors are now also in widespread use. Whilst most flat computer displays are currently based on TFT (thin-film transistor) LCD (liquid crystal display) technology, over the next decade these are likely to be replaced with OLED (organic light emitting diode) screens as already used on some mobile phones and media players. [Note that OLED screens should not be confused with LED-backlit LCD screens however much some manufacturers try to confuse potential buyers otherwise. LED-backlit screens are very nice indeed. OLED are amazing, if currently incredibly expensive.]
Keyboards remain the dominant means of getting most textual and numeric data into a computer. Computer keyboards have also changed relatively little over the past couple of decades. Those developments that have taken place tend to have involved the inclusion of more and more special function keys, wireless technologies, and improvements to assist with display screen equipment health and safety regulations. Early IBM PC keyboards, for example, whilst being extremely robust, had such solid keyboard switches that many people who typed on them all day soon developed repetitive strain injury problems. In contrast, modern keyboards (designed for typists rather than engineers who do not spend all day typing) require a far lighter touch.
Bluetooth card (or adapter) :- Bluetooth is a technology for wireless communication over short distances. It's often used in computers to communicate with wireless keyboards, mice, and printers. It's commonly built into the motherboard or included in a wireless network card. For computers that don't have Bluetooth, you can purchase a USB adapter, often called a dongle.
The CPU (central processing unit), which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heatsink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPUs include an on-die graphics processing unit (GPU). The clock speed of CPUs governs how fast it executes instructions, and is measured in GHz; typical values lie between 1 GHz and 5 GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling.
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