Motherboard -- The primary circuit board inside your PC is its motherboard. All components, inside and out, connect through the motherboard in some way. The other components listed on this page are removable and, thus, replaceable without replacing the motherboard. Several important components, though, are attached directly to the motherboard. These include the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), which stores some information, such as the system clock, when the computer is powered down. Motherboards come in different sizes and standards, the most common as of this writing being ATX and MicroATX. From there, motherboards vary by the type of removable components they're designed to handle internally and what ports are available for attaching external devices.
The second key factor that determines performance of a traditional, internal hard disk is the interface used to connect it to the computer's motherboard. Three types of interface exist: SATA, which is the most modern and now pretty much the norm on new PCs; IDE (also known as UDMA), which is a slower and older form of interface, and finally SCSI, which is happens to be the oldest but in it most modern variant is still the fastest disk interface standard. This said, SCSI is now all but redundant in desktop computing since the introduction of SATA, as SATA provides a fairly high speed interface at much lower cost and complexity than SCSI.
Software is generally created (written) in a high-level programming language, one that is (more or less) readable by people. These high-level instructions are converted into "machine language" instructions, represented in binary code, before the hardware can "run the code". When you install software, it is generally already in this machine language, binary, form.
All Intel Core processors feature more than one "core" -- or in other words more than one physical processor -- manufactured as a single component. Intel's "Core 2 Duo" chips, for example, feature two processors core on a single chip, whilst "Core 2 Quad" processors have four processor cores. In most situations multi-core processors are far more powerful than traditional single core processors. Quite literally this is because they can do several things at the same time (something single core processors can only achieve by constantly switching back and fourth between doing one thing and doing another). In turn this means that multi-core processors can run at lower speeds than single-core processors and yet be far more powerful. A 2.4GHz Core 2 processor, for example, usually proves far more productive than a single core 3GHz Pentium processor. All of this hopefully makes it clear why clock speed by itself is no longer a straight-forward indicator of processor power, with the architecture of the processor -- and most notably including its number of cores -- now being at least as significant.
We hold 3.4 million different server spare parts in stock. This stock is held across our warehouses nationally, so regardless of where in the United Kingdom you are, we can fast track courier spares to you within hours if needed. We only purchase directly from tier 1 manufacturers to ensure that the stock we hold is original and validated to work with your hardware.
Many large defense contractors have multiplatform systems, such as a command module with moving maps, sensor fusion, and database retrieval that overlays data on the unfolding mission scenario. This command system may reside in an air transport rack (ATR) or vetronics chassis mounted in an armored vehicle or widebody aircraft, could be in an air-cooled rack on a ship, or may need to be shoehorned into an SFF system on a multimission ground vehicle.

Graphics cards are also known as the graphics processing unit (GPU) or video card. The more powerful your graphics card is, the more vivid your pictures and the more frame rate, how fast the video moves, will be. Higher end video cards prevent the crashes or buffering that you sometimes see when watching a movie or playing a game on a PC. Graphics cards are also available by size, ranging from 1GB to more than 12GB. Make sure you know how good of a graphics card your motherboard and processor can handle.
If your putting something in your computer and taking it out is most likely a form of removable media. There are many different removable media devices. The most popular are probably CD and DVD drives which almost every computer these days has at least one of. There are some new disc drives such as Blu-ray which can hold a much larger amount of information then normal CDs or DVDs. One type of removable media which is becoming less popular is floppy disk.

The System Clock is an "electrical pulse generator" that sends out a pulse of electricity at regular intervals. The electronic components of the computer need these electric pulses in order to perform work. The more pulses sent out by the system clock, the faster the computer. The first personal computers had clock speeds of 8 MHz (8 million pulses per second); today's PC's have clock speeds greater than 3.2 GHz (3.2 billion pulses per second).
Cooling devices -- The more your computer processes, the more heat it generates. The CPU and other components can handle a certain amount of heat. However, if a PC isn't cooled properly, it can overheat, causing costly damage to its components and circuitry. Fans are the most common device used to cool a PC. In addition, the CPU is covered by a metallic block called a heat sink, which draws heat away from the CPU. Some serious computer users, such as gamers, sometimes have more expensive heat management solutions, like a water-cooled system, designed to deal with more intense cooling demands.

A legacy technology, serial ports were most often used to connect a mouse or modem. By circa 2000, most personal computers stopped relying on serial ports and were replaced by PS/2 and/or USB ports. Serial ports are sometimes still used for specialized applications such as industrial automation systems, scientific instruments, and point of sale systems.


Depending on the kind of PC you’re building, you’ll also need to adjust what you’re looking for with a case and power supply. If you’re creating a high-powered performance workhorse, you’ll need a robust power supply to make it all run, and a case with optimal internal airflow and fans to expel hot air that could potentially damage the system. Zip ties are a massive help with managing all the cables inside your rig, and consolidating the cables helps improves airflow. 
The hard drive or flash drive provides persistent storage as a flat area of bytes without much structure. Typically the hard disk or flash disk is formatted with a "file system" which organizes the bytes into the familiar pattern of files and directories, where each file and directory has a somewhat useful name like "resume.txt". When you connect the drive to a computer, the computer presents the drive's file system to the user, allowing them open files, move file around, etc.
Firmware is loaded from the Read only memory (ROM) run from the Basic Input-Output System (BIOS). It is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. As it name suggests, firmware is somewhere between hardware and software. Like software, it is a computer program which is executed by a microprocessor or a microcontroller. But it is also tightly linked to a piece of hardware, and has little meaning outside of it. Most devices attached to modern systems are special-purpose computers in their own right, running their own software. Some of these devices store that software (“firmware”) in a ROM within the device itself
As a basic rule, unless a computer is going to be used to handle 3D graphics or to undertake a significant volume of video editing or recording, today there is little point in opting for anything other than onboard graphics (not least because separate graphics cards consume quite a lot of electricity and create quite a lot of heat and noise). Adding a new graphics card to a computer with onboard graphics is also a very easy upgrade if required in the future.
The motherboard of your PC is your inner body, it connects all the different parts of your PC together, your motherboard is another critical component that may not effect your performance exactly, but it will effect what parts you can use. Every motherboard will list in its specifications what it is compatible with, this isn’t too big of an issue if you are buying a laptop or computer that is already pre-built, however when building a computer this will be extremely important and determine what parts you can use. Your motherboard is the component that will also decide what inputs and outputs your computer has. An example of these inputs and outputs are your audio outputs, video outputs, usb ports, ethernet ports, firewire ports, and your mouse and keyboard. Most motherboards now come with a video card that is very basic, it won’t be useful for high performance gaming and will cause rendering to be slower when video-editing, that will allow you to playback video files and see your computer on a monitor of course.

Once your system is assembled, it’s time for the big moment – hit the power button! Make sure your monitor and keyboard are connected to the PC, and if everything worked correctly, a screen will appear where you can enter the system BIOS. If you have a disc or flash drive with an OS, put it into the appropriate drive, boot up, and you can install the OS. At this point, the assembly is over – congratulations, you’ve now built your own PC! Way to go!
Bluetooth card (or adapter) :- Bluetooth is a technology for wireless communication over short distances. It's often used in computers to communicate with wireless keyboards, mice, and printers. It's commonly built into the motherboard or included in a wireless network card. For computers that don't have Bluetooth, you can purchase a USB adapter, often called a dongle.

An additional approach uses one set of fans to push air across the heat sink assembly, while a second set pulls air out of another part of the system, intermixing cooler inlet air to counterbalance the warmer air moving across the heat sink. Individual fan control can be used to monitor multiple in-system temperature sensors so air flow can be tuned for maximum cooling.
Firmware is loaded from the Read only memory (ROM) run from the Basic Input-Output System (BIOS). It is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. As it name suggests, firmware is somewhere between hardware and software. Like software, it is a computer program which is executed by a microprocessor or a microcontroller. But it is also tightly linked to a piece of hardware, and has little meaning outside of it. Most devices attached to modern systems are special-purpose computers in their own right, running their own software. Some of these devices store that software (“firmware”) in a ROM within the device itself

Adding memory (RAM) is one of the fastest, easiest, and most affordable ways to amplify the performance of the computer you’re building because it gives your system more available space to temporarily store data that’s being used. Nearly every computer operation relies on memory – that includes having several tabs open while surfing the Web, typing and composing an email, multitasking between applications, and even moving your mouse cursor. Even background services and processes, like system updates, can draw from your RAM and that’s why it’s important to have as much memory as possible. The more things you’re doing, the more memory you need.


In contrast, battlefield-rugged servers bring higher mean time between failures (MTBF) and can operate longer in environments that experience extreme heat, moisture, shock, and vibration, while remaining competitive with commercial server costs. A modular design for these purpose-built servers enables anything in the system to be swapped out on the battlefield, underway on board the ship, or in the air on a reconnaissance mission. This is particularly important in a submarine, for example, where carrying a few replacement modules is far more practical than hauling around a large quantity of spare servers.
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RAM is the easiest hardware to install when you’re building a PC. Locate the memory slots on the motherboard. Hold your memory modules on the side to avoid touching the chips and gold pins. Align the notches on the module with the ridge in the slot then firmly press the module in until it clicks. As you’re pressing, note that it takes about 30 pounds of pressure to fully install a module. Find out how to install memory in a laptop or a desktop.
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. An SSD emulates a hard disk drive, thus easily replacing it in any application. SSDs have begun to appear in laptops because they can be smaller than HDDs. SSDs are currently more expensive per unit of capacity than HDDs which is why they have not caught on so quickly.
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An additional approach uses one set of fans to push air across the heat sink assembly, while a second set pulls air out of another part of the system, intermixing cooler inlet air to counterbalance the warmer air moving across the heat sink. Individual fan control can be used to monitor multiple in-system temperature sensors so air flow can be tuned for maximum cooling.
With all the electronics we’ve discussed, obviously they need power in order to function and this is where your power supply comes into play. Your power supply is exactly what it sounds like, it is the part of the computer that supplies power to all your components, converting the energy from your wall socket into energy for the computer to use. Something to keep in mind about a power supply is that more wattage is NOT always better, depending on how powerful your computer components are you may not need a large wattage. There are many calculators online such as this one

Random-access memory (RAM) -- Even the fastest processor needs a buffer to store information while it's being processed. The RAM is to the CPU as a countertop is to a cook: It serves as the place where the ingredients and tools you're working with wait until you need to pick up and use them. Both a fast CPU and an ample amount of RAM are necessary for a speedy PC. Each PC has a maximum amount of RAM it can handle, and slots on the motherboard indicate the type of RAM the PC requires.


To a large extent, time was called on the clock frequency war because of the difficulties encountered in cooling microprocessors as they became faster and faster. However, another driver was simply that raw processing power was starting to become a secondary concern for many purchasers. By 2005, factors such how much noise a computer makes, case style and size, and a computer's green credentials, were starting to be perceived as important. And such non-processing-power measures are increasingly driving both consumer and business computer purchase decisions today.

Random Access Memory, or RAM, is hardware found in the memory slots of the motherboard. The role of RAM is to temporarily store on-the-fly information created by programs and to do so in a way that makes this data immediately accessible. The tasks that require random memory could be; rendering images for graphic design, edited video or photographs, multi-tasking with multiple apps open (for example, running a game on one screen and chatting via Discord on the other).
Random access memory (RAM) is fast-access memory that is cleared when the computer is power-down. RAM attaches directly to the motherboard, and is used to store programs that are currently running. RAM is a set of integrated circuits that allow the stored data to be accessed in any order (why it is called random). There are many different types of RAM. Distinctions between these different types include: writable vs. read-only, static vs. dynamic, volatile vs. non-volatile, etc.
As computer enthusiasts ourselves, we're there to help you. Once you're confident in the parts list you've put together and you have the right information at your disposal, you can be confident that your build will be successful. And that's how you can build the system you want, at the price you want, and get the best bang for your buck. Pickup the basic components you'll need for your build - a processor, compatible motherboard, memory, case, power supply, storage drive, cooling system, etc. and from there you can start your build. If you're building a gamer system you'll definitely want to research graphics cards as well. Whatever your requirement, shoot us a message and we'll be glad to help you pick the right hardware you need.
There are two different types of storage devices: the traditional hard disk drive (HDD) and the newer solid state drives (SSD). Hard disk drives work by writing binary data onto spinning magnetic disks called platters that rotate at high speeds, while a solid-state drive stores data by using static flash memory chips. Find out more about computer storage and how solid state drives work.
Since memory and storage are a large part of the cost within a new computer, building your own PC gives you a chance to save on these components by adding your own. While RAM and SSD costs rise with the amount of GB they offer, they are less expensive than buying pre-installed (and often inadequate) components that you’ll likely need to upgrade quickly.
Once your system is assembled, it’s time for the big moment – hit the power button! Make sure your monitor and keyboard are connected to the PC, and if everything worked correctly, a screen will appear where you can enter the system BIOS. If you have a disc or flash drive with an OS, put it into the appropriate drive, boot up, and you can install the OS. At this point, the assembly is over – congratulations, you’ve now built your own PC! Way to go!
For instructions on installing the processor, power supply, and putting the motherboard in the case, consult each component’s owner’s manual. The act of installation or assembling parts isn’t complicated, but there is the potential for errors to occur. That’s why it’s best to follow the more detailed step-by-step instructions for each specific part.

Case -- If you're using a laptop, the computer case includes keyboard and screen. For desktop PCs, the case is typically some type of box with lights, vents, and places for attaching cables. The size of the case can vary from small tabletop units to tall towers. A larger case doesn't always imply a more powerful computer; it's what's inside that counts. PC builders design or select a case based on the type of motherboard that should fit inside.
A supercomputer is superficially similar to a mainframe, but is instead intended for extremely demanding computational tasks. As of June 2018, the fastest supercomputer on the TOP500supercomputer list is the Summit, in the United States, with a LINPACK benchmarkscore of 122.3 PFLOPS, exceeding the previous record holder, Sunway TaihuLight, by around 29 PFLOPS.
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