This is the final component needed for your computer, an optical drive or a CD/DVD drive. Blu-Ray drives also read CDs/DVDs as well as Blu-Ray disks, but may not WRITE CD or DVD formats. Either one will be fine however, as what you need is something to read the disk to install your operating system. An operating system delves more into software, but it is simply the software of your computer that manages other software and your hardware devices. Examples of different operating systems are Mac OSX, Windows XP, Windows 7, and Linux. When buying a pre-built PC, it will typically come with an operating system already installed and an optical drive, when building a PC however, you will need to purchase this yourself. It is entirely possible to install an operating system off of a flash drive as well, but it is typically handy to have an optical drive incase you install any other data or programs via CD. You can always add an optical drive to your desktop computer as well, should you find the need for one later on.
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The CPU is held tightly against the motherboard by a little lever mechanism. Here the mechanism is released so the CPU can be picked up. The fingernail sized CPU is packaged underneath this metal cover which helps conduct the heat from the CPU up to its heatsink. The gray stuff on the metal chip cover is "thermal paste", a material which helps conduct heat from the chip housing to its (not shown) heatsink.
Several key cloud computing vendors now offer computing processing capacity and data storage online. Amazon, for example, now have an IaaS offering called Elastic Compute Cloud or EC2. This allows users to purchase computer processing power online from Amazon. Such online hardware capacity is purchased in "instances", with each instance having its own defined amount of processing power, memory and storage. For example, an EC2 "small instance" currently comprises 1.7 GB of memory, 1 EC2 Compute Unit (1 virtual core with 1 EC2 Compute Unit), and 160 GB of storage. Computing instances are charged by the instance hour consumed, with data transfer charged by the GB.
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The speed of a computer's processor chip (technically known as its "clock speed") is measured in gigahertz (GHz), with the fastest modern processors currently running at up to 4.7GHz. However, for most computing tasks -- including web browsing, sending e-mails, word processing and spreadsheet work -- any processor running at 1GHz or more remains perfectly sufficient. (No really guys, it does!).

RAM - Random Access Memory, or just "memory". RAM is the working scratchpad memory the computer uses to store code and data that are being actively used. RAM is effectively a storage area of bytes under the control of the CPU. RAM is relatively fast and able to retrieve the value of any particular byte in a few nanoseconds (1 nanosecond is 1 billionth of a second). The other main feature of RAM is that it only keeps its state so long as it is supplied with power -- RAM is not "persistent" storage.

Understanding your computer and its hardware components can prove very useful when the time comes to upgrade or replace any parts, or when building a computer. Should a problem arise with the internal workings of your computer, you will have a better understanding of the importance of each component, the need for them to be in good working condition and how to go about solving any issues. 
VGA or DVI ports are used to connect display screens to computers. DVI is the more modern standard. However, adapters exist to allow VGA screens to connect to DVI ports and vice-versa, so in practical terms when purchasing a screen all that really matters is that you get the right cable. This said a DVI connection should be used if possible when running a high resolution display (a 19" or greater monitor at anything above 1024x768 resolution) for the sharpest and most stable picture. This is because the VGA port is an old analogue standard and was never intended for today's high display resolutions (even thought it often works reasonably well!).
Let's start with the computer case. This is the metal enclosure that contains many of the other hardware components. It comes in various shapes and sizes, but a typical tower model is between 15-25 inches high. Want to know what's inside? Okay, go get a screwdriver and let's open it up. Seriously, if you are really into computers, the best way to learn is to actually get hands-on. To save us some time, however, have a look at this desktop computer case. A computer enthusiast replaced the metal side panel with a transparent one, so we can have a look inside.
When rackmount servers operate without air conditioners, throttling can only be avoided with efficient air flow across the system and by effectively moving heat from components such as the processors onto the heat sinks. An effective approach is to use two hot-swappable fan tray assemblies that each contain six independently controlled fans. At 10,000 rpm per fan, hundreds of CFM [cubic feet per minute] are available to the entire 19-inch chassis to keep the system cool. To get the air to the heat sinks requires a very large assembly – as much as the full surface of a 6U VPX motherboard – plus vertical fins (Figure 2).
Many large defense contractors have multiplatform systems, such as a command module with moving maps, sensor fusion, and database retrieval that overlays data on the unfolding mission scenario. This command system may reside in an air transport rack (ATR) or vetronics chassis mounted in an armored vehicle or widebody aircraft, could be in an air-cooled rack on a ship, or may need to be shoehorned into an SFF system on a multimission ground vehicle.
Software, commonly known as programs or apps, consists of all the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. These instructions come from a software developer in the form that will be accepted by the platform (operating system + CPU) that they are based on. For example, a program that is designed for the Windows operating system will only work for that specific operating system. Compatibility of software will vary as the design of the software and the operating system differ. Software that is designed for Windows XP may experience a compatibility issue when running under Windows 2000 or NT.
If you have an issue that you need to resolve, server has died, processor or power supply failure, etc but you don't know what part number you need, we can still help. Make sure you note your server serial number and manufacturer part number, both of which can be found on the outside of the server, or on the BIOS screen at startup. With this information we can help to work out quickly which spare parts are applicable for your specific machine.
1. Performance times based on internal lab testing conducted in August 2015. Each task was executed and timed after the system had undergone a fresh boot so that other factors and applications didn’t affect the reported load and boot times. Actual performance may vary based on individual system configuration. Test setup: 1TB Crucial MX200 SSD and 1TB HGST Travelstar® Z5K1000 internal hard drive, both tested on an HP® Elitebook 8760W laptop, Intel® Core™ i7-2620M 2.70GHz processor, 4GB Crucial DDR3 1333 MT/s memory, BIOS Rev. F50 (5 August 2014), and Microsoft® Windows® 8.1 Pro 64-bit operating system.
The pricing of server spares can be quite varied, and this pricing is determined by the relative age of the stock and the scarcity of the parts. We see spare parts being sold at extortionate prices on some internet stores. We will always price competitively and if you see the same part elsewhere cheaper, we will upon examination of the offer, match or beat the price.
that will give you an idea on how many watts you need for your PC. It is best to do research on a power supply yourself if you are building a PC to see what you need for your parts. A pre-built PC and laptop will come with a power supply installed of course that will supply power to the computer, so you won’t have to worry about choosing one if you already have your PC built, however it is useful to know incase you ever upgrade to a more energy efficient supply. The power supply is located typically on the top or bottom of the computer case exposed in the back so you can connect it to a wall socket. Your power supply will not effect your computer’s performance, but is still necessary in order for the computer to run in the first place
The Central Process Unit (CPU) is considered the brain of the computer. Its job is to interpret data and write the data for display or storage. For users who plan to multitask, edit video or audio, watch movies, or play computer games, a fast, multi-core processor is a must. The computer needs to keep up with your demands, which means it has to deliver what you need when you need it.
Memory is what allows a computer to remember things. Similar to human memory, there's long term memory (a hard disc or optical media (like a CD)) and short term memory (RAM). When a computer is turned off, it forgets everything in the RAM, so the computer saves everything it knows it will need later on in the long term memory. The short term memory is easier to use because it can do I/O faster, so when a data is needed by the CPU, it's sent from the hard disk drive (HDD) to the RAM. The short term memory lives on RAM, while the long term memory is in the hard disk drive (HDD). Optical disks let you change certain parts of the memory, it's kind of like having a book or notebook that you might read and get information from.

The motherboard of your PC is your inner body, it connects all the different parts of your PC together, your motherboard is another critical component that may not effect your performance exactly, but it will effect what parts you can use. Every motherboard will list in its specifications what it is compatible with, this isn’t too big of an issue if you are buying a laptop or computer that is already pre-built, however when building a computer this will be extremely important and determine what parts you can use. Your motherboard is the component that will also decide what inputs and outputs your computer has. An example of these inputs and outputs are your audio outputs, video outputs, usb ports, ethernet ports, firewire ports, and your mouse and keyboard. Most motherboards now come with a video card that is very basic, it won’t be useful for high performance gaming and will cause rendering to be slower when video-editing, that will allow you to playback video files and see your computer on a monitor of course.
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Whilst the specification of the components within a computer's system case does matter, today of far more importance to most users is the range of computer peripherals they have available -- or in other words the input and output hardware that allows them to interface with the digital world. Over the past five years in particular, what has mattered most for the majority of the population have been the quite staggering changes that have taken place in the ways in which individuals can now create, output and work with computer data. This section and the next therefore provide a very brief summary of computing input and output devices. You can also find a more conceptual overview of the development and integration of computers into the physical world in the Second Digital Revolution section of ExplainingTheFuture.com.


A modern computer will generally need a PSU that’s rated between 500W – 850W to effectively power all hardware, although the size of the PSU will depend entirely on the power consumption of the system. Computers that are used for highly intensive tasks such as graphic design or gaming will require more powerful components and thus will need a bigger PSU to cater to this additional need.
For instructions on installing the processor, power supply, and putting the motherboard in the case, consult each component’s owner’s manual. The act of installation or assembling parts isn’t complicated, but there is the potential for errors to occur. That’s why it’s best to follow the more detailed step-by-step instructions for each specific part.
A computer's graphics system determines how well it can work with visual output. Graphics systems can either be integrated into a computer's motherboard, or plugged into the motherboard as a separate "video card". Graphics systems integrated into the motherboard (also known as "onboard graphics") are now quite powerful, and sufficient for handling the requirements of most software applications aside from games playing, 3D modelling, and some forms of video editing.
With all the electronics we’ve discussed, obviously they need power in order to function and this is where your power supply comes into play. Your power supply is exactly what it sounds like, it is the part of the computer that supplies power to all your components, converting the energy from your wall socket into energy for the computer to use. Something to keep in mind about a power supply is that more wattage is NOT always better, depending on how powerful your computer components are you may not need a large wattage. There are many calculators online such as this one
Hard-drive capacity is also measured in gigabytes (GB), like memory. A typical hard drive might be 500 GB or even 1 terabyte (1,000 GB) or more. Most hard drives sold today are the traditional mechanical type that use metal platters to store data with magnetic polarity, but a newer type, called a solid state hard drive (SSHD), uses a type of memory, resulting in a fast, quiet, and reliable (but expensive) storage alternative.
A computer's graphics system determines how well it can work with visual output. Graphics systems can either be integrated into a computer's motherboard, or plugged into the motherboard as a separate "video card". Graphics systems integrated into the motherboard (also known as "onboard graphics") are now quite powerful, and sufficient for handling the requirements of most software applications aside from games playing, 3D modelling, and some forms of video editing.
Both floppy and hard drives use a read/write head, which is basically a magnet, to read/write information from/to tracks on a platter. In a hard drive, the read/write head and platter(s) are enclosed together in an air-tight package, making hard drives less susceptible to damage. The read/write head hovers above the platter but should not touch it. If touched, the platter can be damaged, resulting in the loss of some or all the data on the platter. This is known as a head crash.
The speed of a computer's processor chip (technically known as its "clock speed") is measured in gigahertz (GHz), with the fastest modern processors currently running at up to 4.7GHz. However, for most computing tasks -- including web browsing, sending e-mails, word processing and spreadsheet work -- any processor running at 1GHz or more remains perfectly sufficient. (No really guys, it does!).
For instructions on installing the processor, power supply, and putting the motherboard in the case, consult each component’s owner’s manual. The act of installation or assembling parts isn’t complicated, but there is the potential for errors to occur. That’s why it’s best to follow the more detailed step-by-step instructions for each specific part.
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Since memory and storage are a large part of the cost within a new computer, building your own PC gives you a chance to save on these components by adding your own. While RAM and SSD costs rise with the amount of GB they offer, they are less expensive than buying pre-installed (and often inadequate) components that you’ll likely need to upgrade quickly.

The hard drive or flash drive provides persistent storage as a flat area of bytes without much structure. Typically the hard disk or flash disk is formatted with a "file system" which organizes the bytes into the familiar pattern of files and directories, where each file and directory has a somewhat useful name like "resume.txt". When you connect the drive to a computer, the computer presents the drive's file system to the user, allowing them open files, move file around, etc.

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