Software is generally created (written) in a high-level programming language, one that is (more or less) readable by people. These high-level instructions are converted into "machine language" instructions, represented in binary code, before the hardware can "run the code". When you install software, it is generally already in this machine language, binary, form.
All Intel Core processors feature more than one "core" -- or in other words more than one physical processor -- manufactured as a single component. Intel's "Core 2 Duo" chips, for example, feature two processors core on a single chip, whilst "Core 2 Quad" processors have four processor cores. In most situations multi-core processors are far more powerful than traditional single core processors. Quite literally this is because they can do several things at the same time (something single core processors can only achieve by constantly switching back and fourth between doing one thing and doing another). In turn this means that multi-core processors can run at lower speeds than single-core processors and yet be far more powerful. A 2.4GHz Core 2 processor, for example, usually proves far more productive than a single core 3GHz Pentium processor. All of this hopefully makes it clear why clock speed by itself is no longer a straight-forward indicator of processor power, with the architecture of the processor -- and most notably including its number of cores -- now being at least as significant.
The most common electronic component is the "transistor" which works as a sort of amplifying valve for a flow of electrons. The transistor is a "solid state" device, meaning it has no moving parts. It is a basic building block used to construct more complex electronic components. In particular, a "bit" (below) can be built with an arrangement of 5 transistors. The transistor was invented in the early 1950's, replacing the vacuum tube. Since then, transistors have been made smaller and smaller, allowing more and more of them to be etched onto a silicon chip.
A disk array controller is a device which manage the physical disk drives and presents them to the computer as logical units. It almost always implements hardware RAID. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Drives) is a technology that employs the simultaneous use of two or more hard disk drives to achieve greater levels of performance, reliability, and/or larger data volume sizes. A disk array controller also provides additional disk cache.

Depending on the kind of PC you’re building, you’ll also need to adjust what you’re looking for with a case and power supply. If you’re creating a high-powered performance workhorse, you’ll need a robust power supply to make it all run, and a case with optimal internal airflow and fans to expel hot air that could potentially damage the system. Zip ties are a massive help with managing all the cables inside your rig, and consolidating the cables helps improves airflow. 
There are two types of devices in a computer that use CDs: CD-ROM drive and a CD writer. The CD-ROM drive used for reading a CD. The CD writer drive can read and write a CD. CD writers are much more popular are new computers than a CD-ROM drive. Both kinds of CD drives are called optical disc drives because the use a laser light or electromagnetic waves to read or write data to or from a CD.
A laptop computer is only as good as its components and parts. When these elements have outlived their usefulness, it's time to replace and renew with laptop replacement parts. On most notebooks, every part is upgradeable including the keyboard, screen, and inside components. Technology changes dramatically from one year to the next, which is why being able to upgrade to keep up with these changes is essential and being able to do it yourself is priceless.
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When you think of the term computer hardware you probably think of the guts inside your personal computer at home or the one in your classroom. However, computer hardware does not specifically refer to personal computers. Instead, it is all types of computer systems. Computer hardware is in embedded systems in automobiles, microwave ovens, CD players, DVD players, and many more devices. In 2003, only 0.2% of all microprocessors sold were for personal computers. How many other things in your house or your classroom use computer hardware?

When building a gaming PC, you'll also need a graphics display card and a cooling system. The graphics card is responsible for image rendering and video playback. For a powerful gaming computer, choose an NVIDIA or AMD GPU with video RAM of 4GB or higher. Coolers prevent processors and video cards from overheating by blowing cool air over them and venting hot air. Effective cooling requires fans and heat sinks. Power users need thermal paste and circulating cooling liquid when overclocking GPUs and CPUs. Finally, if you want to make your gaming system look as cool and powerful as it runs, outfit it with computer lighting essentials.
A flash drive is faster and uses less power than a hard disk. However, per byte, flash is significantly more expensive than hard drive storage. Flash has been getting cheaper, so it may take over niches at the expense of hard drives. Flash is much slower than RAM, so it is not a good replacement for RAM. Note that Adobe Flash is an unrelated concept; it is a proprietary media format.

The motherboard in a PC is what creates the connection between all the other components in your computer, similar to how the central nervous system works in conjunction with the organs in the human body. A printed circuit board, the motherboard allows the components in the PC, such as the processor, graphics card and memory card, to communicate with each other. When choosing a motherboard, it is best to know what you want to do with the PC and, more importantly, what you will want to do with it later. For example, if you just want to build an inexpensive PC for work or doing school projects, you can choose a motherboard that has a limited number of USB ports and expansion slots. However, if you think you may want to use it for watching high-definition videos or do some intense gaming with it, you will want a motherboard that can expand, such as adding a secondary graphics card or more memory.

Because computer parts contain hazardous materials, there is a growing movement to recycle old and outdated parts.[8] Computer hardware contain dangerous chemicals such as: lead, mercury, nickel, and cadmium. According to the EPA these e-wastes have a harmful effect on the environment unless they are disposed of properly. Making hardware requires energy, and recycling parts will reduce air pollution, water pollution, as well as greenhouse gas emissions.[9] Disposing unauthorized computer equipment is in fact illegal. Legislation makes it mandatory to recycle computers through the government approved facilities. Recycling a computer can be made easier by taking out certain reusable parts. For example, the RAM, DVD drive, the graphics card, hard drive or SSD, and other similar removable parts can be reused.


Power supply -- Other than its CMOS, which is powered by a replaceable CMOS battery on the motherboard, every component in your PC relies on its power supply. The power supply connects to some type of power source, whether that's a battery in the case of mobile computers, or a power outlet in the case of desktop PCs. In a desktop PC, you can see the power supply mounted inside the case with a power cable connection on the outside and a handful of attached cables inside. Some of these cables connect directly to the motherboard while others connect to other components like drives and fans.
Now that we’ve talked about the differences between these two items, let me bring the focus back on the main purpose of them. Both of these devices are used to store information, your photos, word documents, videos, etc. that you save to your computer, all the files that appear every time you turn on computer. Hard drives come in the storage sizes of “Gigabytes”, 1024Megabytes. An example of how large a file can be, a 1080p high quality movie that is around 2-3 hours long can be 3-6Gigabytes of data. Larger storage devices would be needed for someone who works with a lot of video, gaming, or possibly sound editing. Basic word documents, power points, and images are immensely smaller than video.

Intel Celeron, Pentium and Core processors are today all to be found at the heart of new desktop and laptop PCs. Intel additionally also manufacture very-high-specification chips named Xeons and Itaniums to drive the most powerful business workstations and servers. If this range of choice all sounds a bit confusing then to be honest it is -- with Intel itself having resorted to a range of processor section wizards in an effort to explain its processor ranges on its own website.


1. Performance times based on internal lab testing conducted in August 2015. Each task was executed and timed after the system had undergone a fresh boot so that other factors and applications didn’t affect the reported load and boot times. Actual performance may vary based on individual system configuration. Test setup: 1TB Crucial MX200 SSD and 1TB HGST Travelstar® Z5K1000 internal hard drive, both tested on an HP® Elitebook 8760W laptop, Intel® Core™ i7-2620M 2.70GHz processor, 4GB Crucial DDR3 1333 MT/s memory, BIOS Rev. F50 (5 August 2014), and Microsoft® Windows® 8.1 Pro 64-bit operating system.

The most commonly size(120mm) for computer case & radiators. DR12 is a perfect match for an RGB lighting computer system, The fan is designed to decorate your RGB systems, you can enjoy the performance with a beautiful setting. Equipped with rubber pads and hydraulic bearing, which greatly reduce operating noise and improves efficiency. It making darkFlash fan spin at 1200RPM at low 16dBA and deliver an air flow of up to 20.34CFM Elegant look and colorful lighting design. The 3-in-1 remote control enables users to easily select preferred RGB lighting effects, colors and fan speed. Please Note: This darkFlash RGB case fan does not offer speed controllable. For speed controllable fans, please refer to darkFlash ... .


Several key cloud computing vendors now offer computing processing capacity and data storage online. Amazon, for example, now have an IaaS offering called Elastic Compute Cloud or EC2. This allows users to purchase computer processing power online from Amazon. Such online hardware capacity is purchased in "instances", with each instance having its own defined amount of processing power, memory and storage. For example, an EC2 "small instance" currently comprises 1.7 GB of memory, 1 EC2 Compute Unit (1 virtual core with 1 EC2 Compute Unit), and 160 GB of storage. Computing instances are charged by the instance hour consumed, with data transfer charged by the GB.

Printing is also no longer just a flat, 2D process. Whilst yet to become a domestic desktop technology, 3D printers are now available from companies such as 3D Systems, Solid Scape and ZCorp. These allow a computer to output a physical 3D object in various plastics, resins or other materials, or even to print organic tissue! For more information on 3D printing, please see the 3D printing and bioprinting sections on ExplainingTheFuture.com.


Hard disk drives are the high capacity storage devices inside a computer from which software and user data are loaded. Like most other modern storage devices, the capacity of the one or more internal hard disks inside a computer is measured in gigabytes (GB), as detailed on the storage page. Today 40GB is an absolute minimum hard drive size for a new computer running Windows 7, with a far larger capacity being recommended in any situation where more than office software is going to be installed. Where a computer will frequently be used to edit video, a second internal hard disk dedicated only to video storage is highly recommended for stable operation. Indeed, for professional video editing using a program like Premiere Pro CS5, Adobe now recommend that a PC has at least three internal hard disks (one for the operating system and programs, one for video project files, and one for video media). This is also not advice to be lightly ignored if you want your computer to actually work!
Cooling devices -- The more your computer processes, the more heat it generates. The CPU and other components can handle a certain amount of heat. However, if a PC isn't cooled properly, it can overheat, causing costly damage to its components and circuitry. Fans are the most common device used to cool a PC. In addition, the CPU is covered by a metallic block called a heat sink, which draws heat away from the CPU. Some serious computer users, such as gamers, sometimes have more expensive heat management solutions, like a water-cooled system, designed to deal with more intense cooling demands.
Especially important for 3D rendering, the GPU does exactly what its name suggests and processes huge batches of graphic data. You will find that your computer’s graphics card has at least one GPU. As opposed to the basic on-board graphic capabilities that PC motherboards supply, dedicated graphics cards interface with the motherboard via an expansion slot to work almost exclusively on graphic rendering. This also means you can upgrade your graphics card if you want to get a bit more performance from your PC.
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. An SSD emulates a hard disk drive, thus easily replacing it in any application. SSDs have begun to appear in laptops because they can be smaller than HDDs. SSDs are currently more expensive per unit of capacity than HDDs which is why they have not caught on so quickly.
DVDs (digital versatile discs) are another popular optical disc storage media format. The main uses for DVDs are video and data storage. Most DVDs are of the same dimensions as compact discs. Just like CDs there are many different variations. DVD-ROM has data which can only be read and not written. DVD-R and DVD+R can be written once and then function as a DVD-ROM. DVD-RAM, DVD-RW, or DVD+RW hold data that can be erased and re-written multiple times. DVD-Video and DVD-Audio discs respectively refer to properly formatted and structured video and audio content. The devices that use DVDs are very similar to the devices that use CDs. There is a DVD-ROM drive as well as a DVD writer that work the same way as a CD-ROM drive and CD writer. There is also a DVD-RAM drive that reads and writes to the DVD-RAM variation of DVD.

A flash drive is faster and uses less power than a hard disk. However, per byte, flash is significantly more expensive than hard drive storage. Flash has been getting cheaper, so it may take over niches at the expense of hard drives. Flash is much slower than RAM, so it is not a good replacement for RAM. Note that Adobe Flash is an unrelated concept; it is a proprietary media format.
If you have an issue that you need to resolve, server has died, processor or power supply failure, etc but you don't know what part number you need, we can still help. Make sure you note your server serial number and manufacturer part number, both of which can be found on the outside of the server, or on the BIOS screen at startup. With this information we can help to work out quickly which spare parts are applicable for your specific machine.
Many large defense contractors have multiplatform systems, such as a command module with moving maps, sensor fusion, and database retrieval that overlays data on the unfolding mission scenario. This command system may reside in an air transport rack (ATR) or vetronics chassis mounted in an armored vehicle or widebody aircraft, could be in an air-cooled rack on a ship, or may need to be shoehorned into an SFF system on a multimission ground vehicle.
The CPU (central processing unit), which performs most of the calculations which enable a computer to function, and is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. It is usually cooled by a heatsink and fan, or water-cooling system. Most newer CPUs include an on-die graphics processing unit (GPU). The clock speed of CPUs governs how fast it executes instructions, and is measured in GHz; typical values lie between 1 GHz and 5 GHz. Many modern computers have the option to overclock the CPU which enhances performance at the expense of greater thermal output and thus a need for improved cooling.
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